Quantum computing is the elaborate and extensive study of the non-classical model of computation based on non-classical views and notions. Traditional models of computing are based on classical representations and thought processes, quantum computing is an absolutely different theory and is based solely on non-classical representations. A quantum computer is an electronic device that has the power to perform such unconventional computations based on modern technologies.
Quantum computing basically is the process of using and harnessing the various informative laws of quantum mechanics that are used to process the huge amount of information. A normal traditional computer uses bits to encode all files. The problem with bits is that they only encode files in either a zero or a one.
On the other hand, a quantum computer encodes files in quantum bits or qubits. Qubit is a system of coding wherein the zeros and ones are coded in two distinguishable and different quantum states. However, since qubits behave in a quantum manner, it is easy for users to capitalize on the ideas of superposition and entanglement and this can only happen in the case of qubits.
Superposition basically means the position of a quantum system to be in various multiple states, all at the same time. This further means that within the quantum computer, things can be here, there, up or down. Entanglement is a very strong correlation that exists between the various quantum particles present in the quantum computer.
The correlation between particles is so strong that the particles can be inextricably linked together in a perfect unison even when the particles are placed at completely opposite ends of the universe. This correlation seems to be impossible but is actually and really present between the quantum particles. These are the notable striking features that give an upper hand to a quantum computer as compared to a traditional computer.